sábado, 5 de febrero de 2011


Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10,582 square kilometers (4,086 sq mi). It is located in the Potosí and Oruro departments in southwest Bolivia, near the crest of the Andes, and is elevated 3,656 meters (11,995 ft) above the mean sea level.[1] The Salar was formed as a result of transformations between several prehistoric lakes. It is covered by a few meters of salt crust, which has an extraordinary flatness with the average altitude variations within one meter over the entire area of the Salar. The crust serves as a source of salt and covers a pool of brine, which is exceptionally rich in lithium. It contains 50 to 70% of the world's lithium reserves,[2] which is in the process of being extracted. The large area, clear skies and exceptional surface flatness make the Salar an ideal object for calibrating the altimeters of the Earth observation satellites.[3][4][5][6][7] The Salar serves as the major transport route across the Bolivian Altiplano and is a major breeding ground for several species of pink flamingos.

la puerta de sol la Paz Bolivia
 commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital city of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia. The municipality's population was 1,756,926 inhabitants in 2010 (official estimate[2]) and the urban population is 2,102,998 in 2010 (official estimate)[3] which makes it the largest city in Bolivia.

This article is about the South American country. For other uses, see Bolivia (disambiguation).
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (Spanish)
Bulivya Mamallaqta (Quechua)
Wuliwya Suyu (Aymara)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"¡La unión es la fuerza!"  (Spanish)
"Unity is (the) strength!"
AnthemBolivianos, el hado propicio  (Spanish)
Wiphala of Qulla Suyu:
Wiphala of Qulla Suyu
Capital Sucre (constitutional capital)[1]
19°2′S 65°15′W / 19.033°S 65.25°W / -19.033; -65.25 La Paz (seat of government)
16°30′S 68°09′W / 16.5°S 68.15°W / -16.5; -68.15
Largest city Santa Cruz de la Sierra
17°48′S 63°10′W / 17.8°S 63.167°W / -17.8; -63.167
Official language(s) Spanish
and 34 other native languages[2][3]
Ethnic groups  55% Amerindian (Quechua and Aymara), 30% Mestizo, 15% White[4]
Demonym Bolivian
Government Unitary Presidential Republic
 -  President Evo Morales
 -  Vice President Álvaro García
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declared 6 August 1825 
 -  Recognized 21 July 1847 
 -  Total 1,098,581 km2 (28th)
424,163 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.29
 -  2010 estimate increase10,907,778[5] (84th)
 -  2001 census 8,280,184 
 -  Density 8.9/km2 (210th)
23/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $45.523 billion[6] 
 -  Per capita $4,451[6] 
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $17.464 billion[6] 
 -  Per capita $1,707[6] 
Gini (2006) 59.2[7] (high
HDI (2010) increase 0.643[8] (medium) (95th)
Currency Boliviano (BOB)
Time zone (UTC-4)
Drives on the Right
ISO 3166 code BO
Internet TLD .bo
Calling code +591
Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666 Bolivia (pronounced /bəˈlɪviə/ ( listen)), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia[9][10] (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, IPA: [esˈtaðo pluɾinasjoˈnal de βoˈliβja]), is a landlocked country in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, and Chile and Peru to the west.
Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire - the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called Upper Peru and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Bolivia has struggled through periods of political instability, dictatorships and economic woes.
Bolivia is a Democratic Republic that is divided into nine departments. Its geography is varied from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a Medium Human Development Index score, and a poverty level around 60%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Aymara and Quechua languages are also common and all three, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The large number of different cultures within Bolivia has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.